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Bean

Botanical name: Phaseolus Vulgaris
Plant type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Pole beans will grow as a climbing vine that may reach up to 15 feet tall. Therefore, pole beans require a trellis or staking. Bush beans will spread up to 2 feet, but do not require support. Watch this video to learn how to support beans properly.Do not start seeds indoors; they may not survive transplanting.
  • Seeds can be sown outdoors anytime after the last spring frost; minimum soil temperature is 48 degrees F. Plant 1 inch deep in normal soil, and a little deeper for sandier soils. Cover soil to warm if necessary.
  • Bush beans: Plant 2 inches apart.
  • Pole beans: Set up trellises, or “cattle panels,” and plant 3 inches apart.
  • If you like pole beans, an easy support for them is a “cattle panel”—a portable section of wire fence—16 feet long and 5 feet tall. The beans will climb with ease and you won’t have to get into contorted positions to pick them.
  • For a harvest that lasts all summer, sow beans every 2 weeks. If you’re going to be away, skip a planting. Beans do not wait for anyone.
  • Rotate crops each year.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/beans

Broccoli

Botanical Name: Brassica oleracea
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Broccoli can germinate in soil with temperatures as low as 40ºF.Broccoli requires full sun and moist, fertile soil that’s slightly acidic. Work in 2 to 4 inches of rich compost or a thin layer of manure before planting. (Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.)
  • For spring plantings, seed or set transplants 2 to 3 weeks before last spring frost date. (See local frost dates.) If you transplant, assume 10 less days for growth or the “days to maturity” on the seed packet.
  • For fall plantings, seed 85 to 100 days before your average first fall frost. If you live in a warm climate, a fall planting is best, as broccoli thrives in cool weather. Plant seeds in mid- to late-summer in most places.
  • Plant seeds ½ inch deep, or set transplants slightly deeper than they were grown originally.
  • Within a row, space your plants 12 to 24 inches apart with 36 inches between each row.
  • Space plants 12 to 24 inches apart, depending on the side heads you want to harvest.
  • If you overseed, you will need to thin seedlings to 12 inches apart to give room for the broccoli to grow.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/broccoli

Cabbage

Botanical Name: Brassica oleracea
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Start cabbage seeds indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the last spring frost. See frost dates for your area.
  • Harden off plants over the course of a week. To prepare soil, till in aged manure or compost.
  • Transplant outdoors 2 to 3 weeks before the last expected frost date. Choose a cloudy afternoon.
  • Plant 12 to 24 inches apart in rows, depending on size of head desired. The closer you plant, the smaller the heads.
  • Mulch thickly to retain moisture and regulate soil temperature.
  • Practice crop rotation with cabbage year to year to avoid a buildup of soil borne diseases.
  • Because cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower are closely related, and require similar nutrients, it’s best not to plant them together. They are all heavy feeders, depleting the soil faster of required nutrients; plus, they will attract the same pests and diseases. For cabbage, also avoid proximity to strawberries and tomatoes.
  • Cabbage can be grown near beans and cucumbers.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/cabbage

Carrot

Botanical Name: Daucus carota
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Plan to plant seeds outdoors 3 to 5 weeks before the last spring frost date. Find your local frost dates here.
  • Tip: Plant additional seeds every 3 weeks or so for multiple harvests.
  • Plant carrot seeds 3 to 4 inches apart in rows. Rows should be at least a foot apart.
  • Carrots are slow to germinate. They may take 3 or more weeks to show any signs of life, so don’t panic if your carrots don’t appear right away!
  • Keep the soil moist, not wet, but don’t let it dry out, either.
  • Carrots are best grown in full sunlight, but can tolerate a moderate amount of shade.

Preparing the Soil:

One of the most important things to consider when growing carrots (and other root vegetables) is the condition of your soil. Follow these guidelines to ensure a healthy carrot harvest:

  • Make sure your soil is free of stones. Stones obstruct the path of carrot roots, which can result in a stunted and misshapen crop.
  • Till your soil before planting. Carrots need deeply-tilled, loose soil that they can easily push through.
  • Use the right type of soil. Carrots grow best in sandy or loamy soil (as opposed clayey or silty soil), so supplement your soil as necessary. Learn more about soil types.
  • Avoid using manure or too much fertilizer. Have you ever seen a carrot that has grown “legs” or has forked? Fresh manure, or even recently-applied rotted manure, can cause carrots to fork and send out little side roots. Don’t use it before you plant your carrot seeds.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/carrots

Corn

Botanical Name: Zea mays
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Corn plants are picky about their soil. Work in aged manure or compost the fall before planting and let it overwinter in the soil.Starting corn seeds indoors is not recommended.
  • Plant seeds outdoors two weeks after the last spring frost date.
  • Make sure the soil temperature is above 60°F (16°C) for successful germination. (Up to 65°F/18°C for super sweet varieties.) In colder zones, the ground can be warmed by a black plastic cover if necessary. Plant seeds through holes in the plastic.
  • Plant seeds 1.5 to 2 inches deep and 4 to 6 inches apart. Rows 30 to 36 inches apart.
  • For sufficient pollination, plan your plot right. Don’t plant two long rows, rather, plant corn blocks of at least four rows.
  • You may choose to fertilize at planting time; corn is meant to grow rapidly. If you are confident that the soil is adequate, this can be skipped.
  • Water well at planting time.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/corn

Cucumber

Botanical Name: Cucumis sativus
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Cucumber plants are seeded or transplanted outside in the ground no earlier than 2 weeks after last frost date. Cucumbers are extremely susceptible to frost damage; the soil must be at least 70ºF for germination. Do not plant outside too soon!Before you plant outside, select a site with full sun.
  • Soil should be neutral or slightly alkaline with a pH of 7.0.
  • Cucumbers require fertile soil. Mix in compost and/or aged manure before planting to a depth of 2 inches and work into the soil 6 to 8 inches deep. Make sure that soil is moist and well-drained, not soggy.
  • Improve clay soil by adding organic matter. Improve dense, heavy soil by adding peat, compost or rotted manure. (Get a soil test if you are unsure of your soil type; contact your local county cooperative extension.) Light, sandy soils are preferred for northern gardens, as they warm quickly in the spring. See our guide to soil amendments.
  • Plant seedlings one inch deep and about 36 to 60 inches apart, depending on variety. For vines trained on a trellis, space plants 1 foot apart.
  • For an early crop, start cucumber seeds indoors about 3 weeks before you transplant them in the ground. They like bottom heat of about 70ºF (21ºC). If you don’t have a heat mat, put the seeds flat on top of the refrigerator or perch a few on top of the water heater.
  • If you live in the cooler climates, you can help warm the soil by covering the hill or row with black plastic.
  • Once the ground is warm, mulch with pine straw, chopped leaves, or another organic mulch to keep pests at bay, and also keep bush types off the ground to avoid disease.
  • A trellis is a good idea if you want the vine to climb, or if you have limited space. Trellising also protects the fruit from damage from lying on the moist ground. See how to build a trellis and support for vining vegetables.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/cucumbers

Flowers

Cosmos

Botanical Name: Cosmos
Plant Type: Flower
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Just sow seeds lightly—about ¼-inch deep and 12–18 inches apart after the danger of frost has passed. You can also plant transplants instead of seeds.
  • Cosmos don’t need any special soil preparation. In fact, they like soil that is not too rich, as rich soil will encourage foliage at the expense of bloom.
  • Cosmos flowers can tolerate warm, dry weather. They are even drought-tolerant.
  • Depending on the type of flower, cosmos can grow anywhere between 18 to 60 inches tall.
  • If you are growing cosmos from seeds, be mindful that it takes about 7 weeks to first bloom. After that, though, your flowers should continue to bloom until the next frost.
  • If you want a head start, you can plant cosmos indoors 4 to 6 weeks before the last spring frost in trays or pots with a good seed-starting mixture. Move them into 5-inch pots as soon as they’re 3 or 4 inches tall.
  • If you let the spiky-brown seed heads blow away during the fall, cosmos might self-sow throughout your garden.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/cosmos


Marigolds

Botanical Name: Tagetes
Plant Type: Flower
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Marigolds thrive in full sunshine and can often withstand very hot summers.
  • Though they grow in almost any soil, marigolds do best in moderately fertile, well-drained soil.
  • Prepare the soil by digging down about 6 inches to loosen it. Remove stones.
  • Optional: Add some slow-release (granular) fertilizer in the planting hole. A 5-10-5 works fine.
  • Sow seeds directly into the garden once the soil is warm in the spring. You can start seeds indoors but they germinate so easily outside that there’s really no advantage. Marigolds sprout within days in warm weather and plants bloom in about 8 weeks.
  • Moisten the soil, then sow seeds 1 inch apart and no more than 1 inch deep.
  • While still small, thin the seedlings. Space French and Signet types 8 to 10 inches apart. Larger American varieties should be at least 10 to 12 inches apart.
  • If planting transplants, thoroughly water each plant after planting in the garden.
  • If planting in containers, use a soil-based potting mix. Either mix in slow-acting granular fertilizer at planting time or plan to water with diluted liquid fertilizer periodically. Take care to space properly; marigolds grown in containers can become crowded.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/marigolds


Morning Glories

Botanical Name: Ipomoea
Plant Type: Flower
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Grow morning glories in a sunny site. They need a lot of sun to bloom their best!
  • Plant in moderately fertile, well-drained soil.
  • Choose a site that is sheltered from cold or drying winds.
  • Sow morning glory seeds early in the season once the ground has warmed to 64°F (18°C).
  • Germination rates are improved by filing down the seeds just long enough to break the coat, then soaking them for 24 hours before planting. This encourages them to send out a root. (They look like little worms.)
  • Cover lightly with ¼-inch of soil. Space about 6 inches apart. Water thoroughly at planting.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/morning-glories


Nasturtium

Botanical Name: Tropaeolum majus
Plant Type: Flower
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • You can start the seeds indoors 4 to 6 weeks before the last spring frost. See your local frost dates.
  • Plant nasturtium seeds in early spring in moist, well-drained soil in full sun. They can grow in partial shade, but they will not bloom as well.
  • Nasturtiums prefer poorer soils and they do not need fertilizers (unless your soil is extremely poor). Fertile soil will produce fewer blooms and more foliage.
  • Plant the seeds about half an inch deep and 10 to 12 inches apart. Plants should appear in 7 to 10 days.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/nasturtium


Sunflowers

Botanical Name: Helianthus
Plant Type: Flower
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Sunflowers grow best in locations with direct sunlight (6 to 8 hours per day); they prefer long, hot summers to flower well.
  • Sunflowers have long tap roots that need to stretch out, so the plants prefer well-dug, loose, well-draining soil; in preparing a bed, dig down 2 feet in depth and about 3 feet across to ensure the soil isn’t too compact.
  • Find a well-drained location, and prepare your soil by digging an area of about 2-3 feet in circumference to a depth of about 2 feet.
  • Though they’re not too fussy, sunflowers thrive in slightly acidic to somewhat alkaline soil (pH 6.0 to 7.5).
  • Sunflowers are heavy feeders so the soil needs to be nutrient-rich with organic matter or composted (aged) manure. Or, work in a slow release granular fertilizer 8 inches deep into your soil.
  • If possible, put seeds in a spot that is sheltered from strong winds, perhaps along a fence or near a building.
  • Before planting, decide whether or not you want to grow a fun sunflower tower.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/sunflowers


Zinnias

Botanical Name: Zinnia elegans
Plant Type: Flower
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Do not seed until the last frost has passed. See your local frost dates.
  • Choosing a location that gets full sun is essential. Zinnias can stand a minimum daytime temperature of 60 degrees F, and a range of 74 to 84 degrees F is preferred.
  • Zinnias are adaptable, but the ideal soil is nice and fertile, humus-rich, and well-drained. Soil pH should be between 5.5 and 7.5. If soil is amended with compost, the flowers will grow more quickly. Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.
  • Sow zinnia seeds only ¼-inch deep.
  • Space plants 4 to 24 inches apart, depending on variety. (Many common varieties are planted 6 inches apart within the row and 2 feet in between rows.) See back of seed package for variety-specific advice.
  • You’ll see zinnia seedlings in only 4 to 7 days for most varieties.
  • When seedlings reach three inches tall, thin them so that they’re 6 to 18 inches apart to maximize air circulation.
  • Sow in succession for a longer flowering display.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/zinnias

Help: Not finding your specific flower variety? Try searching for it online! Or take a few tips from this article on flower gardening: https://www.almanac.com/blog/gardening/garden-journal/how-grow-flower-garden

Grain Varieties

Quinoa

Botanical Name: Chenopodium quinoa
Plant Type: Grain
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Direct sow in late April to the end of May, while night temperatures are still cool. Seeds should germinate in 4-10 days.
  • Sow ¼” deep, 10 seeds per 12”, and thin to 10-14” between plants. If growing for baby leaf production, plants can be spaced closer together.
  • Ideal pH: 6.0-7.5. Use a well-drained, loamy soil with added organic matter. Keep weeded, but otherwise quinoa is drought tolerant and undemanding.
  • Harvest any time after seeds have changed from green to their calico colors, even after light frost.

Source: https://www.westcoastseeds.com/how-to-grow-guides/grow-quinoa/

Greens

Arugula

Botanical Name: Eruca sativa
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Arugula prefers humus-rich, well-drained soil, but will tolerate a wide variety of conditions.
  • Plant outdoors in full sun or part shade as soon as the soil can be worked in spring. See local frost dates.
  • Sow in late-summer for a fall or early-winter harvest.
  • Plant ¼-inch deep and about 1 inch apart in rows 10 inches apart. Alternatively, broadcast arugula seeds alone or mix with other greens.
  • Seeds germinate in a few days.
  • Sow new seeds every 2 to 3 weeks for a continuous harvest.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/arugula


Swiss Chard

Botanical Name: Beta vulgaris
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun, Part Sun

Planting:

  • Plant Swiss chard seeds 2 to 3 weeks before the last spring frost date. Continue planting seeds at 10-day intervals for a month.
  • For a fall harvest, plant chard seeds again about 40 days before the first fall frost date.
  • Before planting, mix 1 cup of 5-10-10 fertilizer into the soil for every 20 feet of single row.
  • Plant the seeds ½ to ¾ of inch deep in well-drained, rich, light soil. Space the seeds about 18 inches apart in single rows or 10 to 18 inches apart in wide rows. Sow eight to ten seeds per foot of row.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/swiss-chard

Help: Can’t find your greens variety? Try searching for it online, or take a look at this nifty article that contains tips on growing greens: https://www.almanac.com/blog/gardening/garden-journal/how-grow-your-own-salad-greens

Herbs

Basil

Botanical Name: Ocimum basilicum
Plant Type: Herb
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • To get a head start, start the seeds indoors 6 weeks before the last spring frost. (See local frost dates.)
  • To plant outside, wait until the soil is at least 50 degrees—preferably around 70ºF for best growth. Don’t rush basil. Without heat, the plant won’t grow.
  • Basil needs to be in a location that gets 6 to 8 hours of full Sun daily; soil should be moist and well-drained.
  • Plant seeds/seedlings about ¼-inch deep and 10 to 12 inches apart. They should grow to about 12 to 24 inches in height. For smaller plants, plant farther apart (about 16 to 24 inches).
  • During the dry periods in summer, water the plants freely.
  • Remember to pinch out the flower heads as soon as they appear to make sure that the leaves will continue growing.
  • If you’re planning on cooking with these plants, plant in clean soil (don’t use fertilizers that leave harmful residues) and grow them away from driveways and busy streets so that exhaust won’t settle on the plants.
  • Tomatoes make great neighbors for basil plants in the garden.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/basil


Cilantro

Botanical Name: Coriandrum sativum
Plant Type: Herb
Sun Exposure: Full Sun, Part Sun

Planting:

  • Plant cilantro in the spring after the last frost date or in the fall. In the Southwestern US, a fall planting may last through spring until the weather heats up again.
  • Do not grow in summer heat as the plants will bolt (such that it will be past harvesting). The leaves that grow on bolted plants tend to be bitter in flavor.
  • It is best to choose a sunny site that will allow cilantro to self-seed as it is ought to do. Plant in an herb garden or the corner of a vegetable garden. When the weather gets warm, the plant will quickly finish its life cycle and send up a long stalk which will produce blossoms and later seeds. Little plants will sprout during the season and the next spring.
  • Plant the seeds in light, well-drained soil and space them 1 to 2 inches apart. Sow the seeds at 3-week intervals for continued harvest.
  • Space rows about 12 inches apart.
  • It is important to keep the seeds moist during their germination, so remember to water the plants regularly.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/coriander-and-cilantro


Dill

Botanical Name: Anethum graveolens
Plant Type: Herb
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Sow dill seeds about ¼-inch deep and 18 inches apart in rich soil, then gently rake the seeds into the soil. The soil should be between 60 and 70ºF for best results.
  • Dill weed does not grow well when transplanted, so start the seeds fresh in the garden in early summer. Make sure to shelter the plants from strong winds.
  • After 10 to 14 days, the plants should appear in the soil. Wait another 10 to 14 days, then thin the plants to about 12 to 18 inches apart.
  • In your garden, plant dill next to cabbage or onions, but keep it away from carrots.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/dill


Parsley

Botanical Name: Petroselinum crispum
Plant Type: Herb
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • For a head start, plant seeds in individual pots indoors 10 to 12 weeks before the last spring frost. For better germination, you can soak the seeds overnight.
  • Plant the seeds 3 to 4 weeks before the last spring frost because parsley is a slow starter. (The plants can handle the cold weather.) It can take up to 3 weeks for the plants to sprout.
  • Plant the seeds in moist, rich soil about 6 to 8 inches apart. For thinner plants, plant about 6 to 10 inches apart. Try to pick an area that is weed-free; that way, you’ll be able to see the parsley sprouting after about 3 weeks.

You can use a fluorescent light to help the seedlings grow. Make sure it remains at least two inches above the leaves at all times.

To ensure the best growth, the soil should be around 70ºF.

Plant parsley near asparagus, corn, and tomatoes in your garden.


Sage

Botanical Name: Salvia officinalis
Plant Type: Herb
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Sage needs full sun! Soil must drain well. The easiest and best way to start sage is from a small plant.
  • Set the plants 2 feet apart.
  • You can also sow seeds up to two weeks before the last frost date. (See local frost dates.) Plant the seeds/cuttings in well-drained soil 1 to 2 weeks before the last spring frost.
  • For best growth, the soil should be between 60º and 70ºF.
  • Plants should grow to be between 12 and 30 inches in height.
  • In the garden, plant near rosemary, cabbage, and carrots, but keep sage away from cucumbers.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/sage


 

Help: Not finding your herb variety? Try searching for it online, or follow these basic tips that all herbs can appreciate:

Tips to Growing Herbs

Herbs are forgiving plants and will grow in less than ideal conditions.

  • Drainage is the most important thing to consider since many herbs do not like wet feet.
  • The soil does not have to be overly fertile. In fact, if herbs are over-fertilized they tend to be less flavorful.
  • Most herbs grow best with at least six hours of sun a day.
  • When planting, give the perennial herbs room to grow. It may look a little bare at first but they will expand to fill the space. Crowded plants compete with each other for nutrients and water and can be difficult to harvest. Air circulation is important for healthy growth, especially during humid weather.
  • Herbs respond well to regular pruning and when you clip them often to use, you’ll be encouraging fresh new growth.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/blog/gardening/garden-journal/growing-herbs-garden

Lettuce

Botanical Name: Lactuca sativa
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Part Sun

Planting:

Before you plant your lettuce seeds, make sure the soil is prepared. It should be loose and drain well so it’s moist without staying soggy. To keep the soil fertile, feed it with organic matter about one week before you seed or transplant. Since the seed is so small, a well-tilled seedbed is essential. Large clods will reduce germination. Read more about preparing soil for planting.

  • Direct sowing is recommended as soon as the ground can be worked. Plant seeds ½ inch deep. Snow won’t hurt them, but a desiccating cold wind will.
  • If you want an earlier crop, however, you may start seeds indoors 4 to 6 weeks before last spring frost date for an earlier crop. Harden off seedlings for about one week, and transplant outside between 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after last spring frost.
  • Seed may be sown in single rows or broadcast for wide row planting. When broadcasting, you’ll need to “thin” for the proper spacing.
    • Leaf lettuce: Plant 4 inches apart.
    • Cos and loose-headed types: Plant 8 inches apart.
    • Firm-headed types: Plant 16 inches apart.
  • Your rows of plants should be 12 to 15 inches across.
  • Cover the seeds with ¼ to ½ inch of soil.
  • Water thoroughly at time of transplant.
  • Consider planting rows of chives or garlic between your lettuce to control aphids. They act as “barrier plants” for the lettuce.
  • If you’d like to grow your lettuce indoors, check out these tips for growing lettuce indoors.
  • In some regions, it’s possible to plant a second crop of lettuce in the fall or even early winter. Find tips for planting a second crop of lettuce here.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/lettuce

Melon

Watermelon

Botanical Name: Citrullus lanatus
Plant Type: Fruit
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • If you live in warmer climes, you can sow seeds directly outdoors, but wait until the soil temperature warms to at least 70°F to avoid poor germination.Watermelon vines are very tender and should not be transplanted until all danger of frost has passed. (To be safe, wait at least two weeks past your last frost date.)
  • If you are in a cooler zone, start seeds indoors about a month before transplanting.
  • Amend soil with aged manure, seaweed, and/or compost before planting. Watermelons are heavy feeders. Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.
  • Watermelons prefer a soil pH between 6 and 6.8.
  • Growing the vines in raised rows, known as hills, ensures good drainage and will hold the sun’s heat longer. Space the plants about 2 feet apart in a 5-foot-wide hill.
  • If you’re growing in rows, space 6 feet by 6 feet apart.
  • Watermelons like loamy, well-drained soil. Handle them gently when you transplant.
  • After you transplant, cover the plants with row covers to keep pests at bay. You’ll remove the row covers when you see both male and female flowers on the vine.
  • Find even more tips for planting watermelon in your home garden.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/watermelons


Cantaloupes

Botanical Name: Cucumis melo
Plant Type: Fruit
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Amend soil with aged manure or compost before planting. (Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.)Growing the vines in raised rows, known as hills, ensures good drainage and will hold the sun’s heat longer.
  • If you are in a cooler zone, start seeds indoors about a month before transplanting. Cantaloupe vines are very tender and should not be transplanted until all danger of frost has passed.
  • If you live in warmer climes, you can direct sow seeds outdoors, but wait until the soil temperature warms to at least 65 degrees to avoid poor germination. Plant seeds one inch deep, 18 inches apart, in hills about 3 feet apart.
  • If you have limited space, vines can be trained to a support, such as a trellis.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/cantaloupes

Onion

Botanical Name: Allium cepa
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Plant onions as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring, usually late March or April. Make sure outdoor temperatures don’t dip below 20°F (-6°C).Select a location with full sun, where your onions won’t be shaded by other plants.
  • Soil needs to be well-drained, loose, and rich in nitrogen; compact soil affects bulb development.
  • Add aged manure or compost to the soil in early spring, before planting. Onion plants are heavy feeders and need constant nourishment to produce big bulbs.
  • At planting time, mix in some nitrogen fertilizer.
  • Onion seeds are short-lived. If planting seeds indoors, start with fresh seeds each year. Start seeds indoors about 6 weeks before transplanting to the garden.
  • Think of onions as a leaf crop, not a root crop. When planting onion sets, don’t bury them more than 1 inch under the soil.
  • For sets or transplants, space plants 4 to 5 inches apart in rows 12 to 18 inches apart.
  • Practice crop rotation with onions.
  • Add mulch between the rows of onions. This will help retain moisture and stifle weeds.
  • Find more tips for planting onions in different regions and soils.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/onions

Peas

Botanical Name: Pisum sativum
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full sun, Part Sun

Planting:

  • To get the best head start, turn over your pea planting beds in the fall, add manure to the soil, and mulch well.As with other legumes, pea roots will fix nitrogen in the soil, making it available for other plants.
  • Peas will appreciate a good sprinkling of wood ashes to the soil before planting. Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.
  • Sow seeds outdoors 4 to 6 weeks before last spring frost, when soil temperatures reach 45 degrees F. Here are some more tips on when to start planting peas.
  • Plant 1 inch deep (deeper if soil is dry) and 2 inches apart.
  • Get them in the ground while the soil is still cool, but do not have them sit too long in wet soil. It’s a delicate balance of proper timing and weather conditions. For soil that stays wet longer, invest in raised garden beds.
  • A blanket of snow won’t hurt emerging pea plants, but several days with temperatures in the teens could. Be prepared to plant again.
  • Peas are best grown in temperatures below 70 degrees F.
  • Check out this video to learn how to plant peas early while soil is cold.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/peas

Peppers

Botanical name: Capsicum anuum
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun
Planting:
  • Start seeds indoors 8-10 weeks before last spring frost date.
  • The temperature must be at least 70° F for seed germination, so keep them in a warm area for the best and fastest results.
  • Start pepper seeds three to a pot, and thin out the weakest seedling. Let the remaining two pepper plants spend their entire lives together as one plant. The leaves of two plants help protect peppers against sunscald and the yield is often twice as good as two segregated plants.
  • Begin to harden off plants about 10 days before transplanting.
  • A week before transplanting, introduce fertilizer or aged compost into your garden soil.
  • After the danger of frost has passed, transplant seedlings outdoors, 18 to 24 inches apart (but keep paired plants close to touching.)
  • Soil should be at least 65° F, as peppers will not survive transplanting at temps any colder. Northern gardeners can warm up the soil by covering it with black plastic.
  • Put two or three match sticks in the hole with each plant, along with about a teaspoon of fertilizer. These give the plants a bit of sulfur, which they like.

Radish

Botanical Name: Raphanus sativus
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Like carrots, radish plants are primarily grown for their roots. The roots will not grow well in compacted soil, so be sure to till your garden bed and remove any rocks before planting. If your soil is clayey, mix in some sand to loosen it and improve drainage.Incorporate a few inches of aged compost or all-purpose fertilizer (see packaging for amount) into the planting site as soon as the soil is workable. Radishes do best in soil that’s rich in organic matter.
  • For a spring planting, sow seeds 4-6 weeks before the average date of last frost. See local frost dates here.
  • Directly sow seeds outdoors ½ inch to an inch deep and one inch apart in rows 12 inches apart.
  • Plant in a sunny spot. If they are planted in too much shade—or even where neighboring vegetable plants shade them—they put all their energy into producing larger leaves.
  • Practice three-year crop rotation. In other words, only plant radishes in the same spot every third year. This will help prevent diseases from affecting your crop.
  • Plant another round of seeds every 10 days or so—while weather is still cool—for a continuous harvest of radishes in the late spring and early summer.
  • Plan on a fall planting. You can plant radishes later than any other root crop in late summer or early fall and still get a harvest. Sow seeds 4–6 weeks before the first fall frost.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/radishes

Spinach

Botanical Name: Spinacia oleracea
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Prepare the soil with aged manure about a week before planting, or, you may wish to prepare your spot in the fall so that you can sow the seeds outdoors in early spring as soon as the ground thaws. (Learn more about preparing soil for planting.)If you live in a place with mild winters, you can also plant in the fall.
  • Although seedlings can be propagated indoors, it is not recommended, as seedlings are difficult to transplant.
  • Spring plantings can be made as soon as the soil can be properly worked. It’s important to seed as soon as you can to give spinach the required 6 weeks of cool weather from seeding to harvest.
  • Select a site with full sun to light shade and well-drained soil.
  • Sow seeds ½ inch to 1 inch deep, covering lightly with soil. Sow about 12 seeds per foot of row, or sprinkle over a wide row or bed.
  • Soil should not be warmer than 70º F in order for germination.
  • Successive plantings should be made every couple weeks during early spring. Common spinach cannot grow in midsummer. (For a summer harvest, try New Zealand Spinach or Malabar Spinach, two similar leafy greens.)
  • Plant in mid-August for a fall crop, ensuring that soil temps are cool enough.
  • Gardeners in northern climates can harvest early-spring spinach if it’s planted just before the cold weather arrives in fall. Protect the young plants with a cold frame or thick mulch through the winter, then remove the protection when soil temperature in your area reaches 40º.
  • Water the new plants well in the spring.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/spinach

Squash

Botanical Name: Cucurbita
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Squash are generally divided into two categories based on when they’re harvested and how they’re used:

  • Summer squash are harvested in the summer before they reach full maturity. Because they’re harvested early, their skin is edible and they have a relatively short shelf life. Summer squash varieties include zucchini, straightneck squash (a.k.a. “yellow summer squash”), and crookneck squash.
  • Winter squash are harvested in autumn after or just before they reach full maturity. This leaves their skin inedible, but gives them a longer shelf life (some varieties are capable of keeping through the winter—hence the name “winter squash”). Winter squash varieties include pumpkins, butternut squash, spaghetti squash, and acorn squash.

Planting:

  • If you wish to start seeds indoors due to a short gardening season, sow 2 to 4 weeks before your last spring frost in peat pots. (See local frost dates.) However, we recommend direct-seeding for squash because they do not always transplant well. If you do transplant, be very gentle with the roots.
  • The soil needs to be warm (at least 60ºF/16°C at a two-inch depth), so plant summer squash after spring (cool-season) crops, like peas, lettuce, and spinach—about one week after the last spring frost to midsummer.
  • To get an early start when soil temperatures are not yet ideal, warm the soil with black plastic mulch once the soil has been prepared in early spring.
  • In fact, waiting to plant a few seeds in midsummer will help avoid problems from squash vine borers and other pests and diseases common earlier in the season.
  • The outside planting site needs to receive full sun; the soil should be moist and well-drained, but not soggy.
  • Squash plants are heavy feeders. Work compost and plenty of organic matter into the soil before planting for a rich soil base. (Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.)
  • To germinate outside, use a cloche, row cover, or frame protection in cold climates for the first few weeks.
  • Plant seeds about one-inch deep and 2 to 3 feet apart in a traditional garden bed.
  • Alternatively, plant as a “hill” of 3 or 4 seeds sown close together on a small mound; this is helpful in northern climates, as the soil is warmer off the ground. Allow 5 to 6 feet between hills.
  • Most summer squash now come in bush varieties, which take up less space, but winter squash are vining plants that need more space. Bush varieties will need to be thinned in early stages of development to about 8 to 12 inches apart.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/squash-and-zucchini

Tomato

Botanical Name: Lycopersicon esculentum
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

When to Plant Tomatoes
  • If you’re planting seeds (versus transplants), you’ll want to start your seeds indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the average  last spring frost date.. See our post on “Tomatoes From Seed the Easy Way.”
  • Select a site with full sun and well-drained soil. For northern regions, it is VERY important that your site receives at least 6 hours of daily sunlight. For southern regions, light afternoon shade will help tomatoes survive and thrive.
  • Two weeks before transplanting seedlings outdoors, dig soil to about 1 foot deep and mix in aged manure or compost. Learn more about preparing soil for planting.
  • Harden off transplants for a week before planting in the garden. Set transplants outdoors in the shade for a couple of hours the first day. Gradually increase the amount of time your plants are outside each day to include some direct sunlight.  Learn more about hardening off seedlings.
  • Transplant after last spring frost when the soil is warm. See our Planting Calendar for Transplants for your region.
  • Place tomato stakes or cages in the soil at the time of planting. Staking keeps developing tomato fruit off the ground, while caging lets the plant hold itself upright. Learn how to build stakes and other tomato supports with this video.
  • Some sort of support system is recommended, but sprawling can also produce fine crops if you have the space, and if the weather cooperates.
  • Plant transplants about 2 feet apart.
  • Pinch off a few of the lower branches on transplants, and plant the root ball deep enough so that the remaining lowest leaves are just above the surface of the soil.
  • If your transplants are leggy you can remedy this by burying up to ? of the plant including the lower sets of leaves. Tomato stems have the ability to grow roots from the buried stems.
  • Water well to reduce shock to the roots.
Growing Tomatoes in Pots
  • Use a large pot or container with drainage holes in the bottom.
  • Use loose well-draining soil. We recommend a good potting mix with added organic matter.
  • Plant one tomato plant per pot. Choose from bush or dwarf varieties. Many cherry tomatoes grow well in pots.
  • Taller varieties may need to be staked.
  • Place the pot in a sunny spot with 6 to 8 hours of full sun a day.
  • Keep soil moist. Check daily and water extra during a heat wave.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/tomatoes

Turnips

Botanical Name: Brassica rapa
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

When to Seed

  • For a late spring harvest, sow turnip seeds directly in the garden as soon as the ground is workable, usually 2 to 3 weeks before the average last frost date.
  • For an autumn harvest, sow turnips in late summer. Sow after summer crops of onions, squash, beans or sweet corn.
  • You can also sow seeds in early autumn for a late autumn harvest.

Planting Instructions

  • Turnips are seeded directly into the ground; they do not transplant well.
  • Select a site that gets full sun.
  • Soil should be well-draining and loosened to a depth of 12 to 15 inches.
  • In advance, mix in a 2- to 4-inch layer of compost or aged manure. Add sand to heavy, clay soil.
  • Scatter turnip seed. Do not cover the seeds with more than ½ an inch of soil.
  • Once seedlings are 4 inches high, thin them to 4 to 6 inches apart. Space wide rows 12 inches apart.
  • Thin turnips grown for greens from 2 to 3 inches apart (or, some of us don’t bother thinning for greens at all).

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/turnips

Other Fruit Varieties

Strawberries

Botanical Name: Fragaria
Plant Type: Fruit
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Plan to plant as soon as the ground can be worked in the Spring. See your local frost dates.Strawberries are sprawling plants. Seedlings will send out runners, or ‘daughter’ plants, which in turn will send out their own runners.
  • Make planting holes deep and wide enough to accommodate the entire root system without bending it. However, don’t plant too deep: The roots should be covered, but the crown should be right at the soil surface.
  • Provide adequate space for sprawling. Set plants out 20 inches apart, and leave 4 feet between rows.
  • Roots shouldn’t be longer than 8 inches when plants are set out. Trim them if necessary.
  • pH should be between 5.5 and 7. If necessary, amend your soil in advance.
  • Strawberry plants require 6-10 hours a day of direct sunlight, so choose your planting site accordingly.
  • Tolerant of different soil types, although prefer loam. Begin working in aged manure or compost a couple months before planting.
  • Planting site must be well-drained. Raised beds are a particularly good option for strawberry plants.
  • Practice crop rotation for the most success. Do not plant in a site that recently had strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, or eggplant.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/strawberries

Other Root Varieties

Beets

Botanical Name: Beta vulgaris
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun, Part Sun

Planting:

  • A soil pH between 6.0 and 7.0 is best, but slightly alkaline soils are tolerated in some areas.
  • Till in aged manure before planting. Beets require especially good nutrition and a high phosphorus level to germinate. Go easy on nitrogen however, an excess will cause sprawling greens and tiny bulbs beneath the soil. (Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.)
  • Wait until soil reaches 50°F before planting.
  • Plant seeds ½ inch deep and 1-2 inches apart.
  • Make sure soil remains moist for germination.
  • In zones with low moisture and rainfall, soak the seeds for 24 hours before planting.
  • Early crop can be planted in March/April, and late crop anytime from June to September. Successive plantings are also possible as long as the weather doesn’t exceed 75°F. Space plantings about 20 days apart.
  • Winter crops are a definite possibility in Zone 9 and above.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/beets


Rutabagas

Botanical Name: Brassica napobrassica
Plant Type: Vegetable
Sun Exposure: Full Sun

Planting:

  • Select a site that gets full sun. Soil should be well-drained.
  • Sow seeds as soon as you can work the soil.
  • Plant seed 2 inches apart and ½-inch deep in early to mid-summer, about three months before the expected harvest.
  • Rows should be 14 to 18 inches apart.
  • Seeds should germinate in 4 to 7 days in 45ºF to 85ºF weather. Sustained average temperature over 80ºF might cause excessively fast growth, called “bolting.”
  • After germination, rutabagas should be thinned to 6 inches apart.

Source: https://www.almanac.com/plant/rutabagas